Marsden, K., Garske, J. P., & Ogles, B. M. (1994). Effects of feedback, gender, and explanatory style on mood, and performance in collegiate swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26(5), Supplement abstract 1114.

Swimmers performed their best event worse after receiving false negative feedback than after accurate feedback. This occurred independent of sex or pessimism or optimism in the swimmer.

Implication. A coach's reaction to a swim can affect the next performance. If what the coach says is contrary to the swimmer's assessment of performance (inaccurate feedback) a subsequent swim is likely to be worse. Simply put, realistic positive feedback is likely to have the best effect on swimmers.

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