Horn, T. S. (1985). Coaches' feedback and changes in children's perceptions of their physical competence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 174-186.

Five coaches and female players of junior high school softball were evaluated. A variety of measures of game and practice behaviors were analyzed. Three major findings resulted.

  1. Players' perceptions of physical and cognitive abilities were related to coaches' evaluative feedback at practice. Game feedback was not related.

  2. Players' perceptions of competence was related to:

  3. Punishment was negatively correlated with self-perception.

Implication. An athlete will eventually come to believe what a coach says about his/her standard of performance at practice. If a coach does not respond positively then the athlete's self-perception of his/her competency in the sport will eventually be degraded.

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