Girodo, M., & Wood, D. (1979). Talking yourself out of pain: The importance of believing that you can. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3, 23-33.

It was found that positive self-talk coping strategies and subsequent belief in personal control were critical to success. Ss who were provided a rationale for why the treatment worked, coped better with experimentally induced pain than those not provided with a rationale. It created:

Implication. Belief may be as effective as a strategy for developing concerted efforts. However, much of Rushall's work with athletes would dispel such a notion. Many athletes' beliefs are not based on fact and compete with applying principles that actually do promote performance improvements. However, an athlete has to believe that what he/she is doing is right and helpful, whether or not that is true, to get a maximum response to task applications.

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