Anderson, A. T. (1993). The effect of an instructional self-talk program on learning a motor skill: The overhand throw. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(1), 82.

A three-week program of instructional variables was used on school children (8-9 yr) of both sexes. One group received self-talk instruction with metaphoric language, another traditional demonstrations with sterile verbal descriptions, and the other demonstrations alone.

Results. The self-talk group was superior to the other two forms of instruction. It proved to be effective and superior for these young children. There was no gender difference. The self-talk group tended to use as self-instructions, those instructions and metaphoric examples used in the teaching situation.

Implication. Self-talk with expressive and metaphoric content is an effective strategy for teaching young children a physical skill. Since self-talk instructed young children are likely to echo the verbal content of what is presented, it is important the instructional language contains meaningful illustrative language with which they can identify and understand.

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