Friend, H. J., (1987). Predicting baseball player performance. Dissertation Abstracts International-B, 49(05), 1977.

This study consisted of establishing a prediction system for baseball players. Psychological measures employed were the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Levenson's multidimensional locus of control (LOC), which was modified for sport, and a motivation measure, called the Sports Motivation Survey (SMS). Ratings of players' physical abilities were made by coaches on such abilities as hitting, pitching, and defensive skills, and were also used as predictors of performance.

Results from the sample of 196 players indicate that the anger (POMSA) and tension (POMST) subscales were the two strongest psychological predictors of performance. Using multiple regression, batting skills and the POMSA accounted for about 33% of the variance in runs batted in (RBI) and 11% of the variance in slugging percentage (SLUG%). The LOC and SMS did not quantitatively predict performance; however, feedback from coaches showed that scores on these measures that ranged within one standard deviation above and below the mean were suggestive of consistent play. Morgan's (1974, 1979, 1980) research describing the 'Iceberg Profile' appears to have little, if any, predictive relationship to subsequent baseball player performance.

Implication. The overall results of this research suggest that certain subscales of the POMS are somewhat indicative of specific types of performance.

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