Troup, J. P. (Ed.). (1990). Energy contributions of competitive freestyle events. In International Center for Aquatic Research Annual: Studies by the International Center for Aquatic Research 1989-90. Colorado Springs, CO: United States Swimming Press.

This study substantiates the fact that the specific nature of energy contributions made in each freestyle swimming event makes it difficult for athletes to train for multiple events without sacrificing performance to some degree for a specific event.

Swimming appears to have a much greater endurance component than that reported for running or in theoretical energy capacity curves.

This study produced a number of significant findings and implications.

  1. All swimming events require a solid aerobic conditioning base. This should be established first since the rate of energy use is affected by this component.
  2. All swimming events will be enhanced if, at the very least, the swimmers maintain and develop an anaerobic component.
  3. Close attention should be given to the actual energy contributions, since the most specific type of training would include workouts that mimic these same percent contributions (how that is done is not easily determined).

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