Town, G. P., & Bradley, S. S. (1991). Maximal metabolic responses of deep and shallow water running in trained runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 238-241.

Maximal metabolic responses of competitive runners (N = 9) were compared for treadmill running, deep water running, and shallow water running.

Results. Treadmill running elicited higher VO2max and HRmax than either water test. VO2max was higher for shallow water than deep water running. Respiratory exchange ratio and lactic acid measures did not differ between the conditions.

Implication. Even though trained runners "ran" in three different milieus, the metabolic costs and response patterns were different. It would appear that there would be no specific benefit to running in any of these conditions because of the incorrect energy supply mechanisms for pure running. The actual benefits of such training, other than in the most basic/general phases of training have to be questioned.

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