Krzesinski ,J. M., & Ancion, G. (2001). Sports and hypertension. Revue Medicale de Liege, 56, 306-312.

"Regular physical exercise belongs to the non pharmacological tools for the control of high blood pressure. When practicing it almost daily at low intensity during 30 minutes, and mainly on a dynamic mode, blood pressure can decrease almost of the same order of magnitude as with an antihypertensive drug. In severe hypertension, blood pressure must be first controlled by drugs before starting the physical exercise training. An exercise test is preferable before exercise suggestion in sedentary people older than 40 years. In hypertensive people who enter sportive competition, diuretics and beta-blockers are forbidden. These agents can also reduce performance".

Implication. Diuretics and beta-blockers are performance reducers, not enhancers. Consequently, their presence on the banned-drug list is questionable. Diuretics are listed mainly because they could be used to mask drug taking (a claim that is yet to be verified by scientific evidence) and beta-blockers are supposed to slow the heart, making it easier to exercise precise movements in activities such as shooting and archery. Why beta-blockers are unacceptable for all sports is unfathomable.

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