Kalinski, M. I., Dunbar, C. C., Gavronski, W., & Szygula, Z. (May, 2002). Evidence of state-sponsored steroid research using human subjects in the former Soviet Union. Sixth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences, abstract, p. 37.

The methodological office of the Central Institute of Physical Culture in Moscow produced a classified document, “Anabolic steroids and sport capacity” (39 pages) in 1972. Only recently has this document become available outside the Soviet Union/Russia. It contains sections titled “Anabolics and endurance”, “Anabolics and strength”, Anabolics and sport performance”, “Anabolics and sport results”, "Dosages of the anabolics”, “Possible adverse effects”, and “Control of use”. Separate investigations in the sports of biathlon, rowing, and basketball document improvements in sport achievements by improving muscle mass, maximal oxygen consumption, myocardial contractile function, and recovery.

Implication. International sporting achievements by many Soviet Union athletes were most likely to have been enhanced by state-controlled drug programs.

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