Gomez, J. E. (2002). Performance-enhancing substances in adolescent athletes. Texas Medicine, 98(2), 41-46.

"Use of performance-enhancing substances is widespread among adolescents. Anabolic steroids, creatine, and androstenedione are currently among the most used ergogenic substances. In the past 10 years, the amount of data regarding these substances from well-designed clinical trials has increased dramatically. Anabolic steroids remain difficult to study because of their known harmful side effects. The vast amount of data on creatine and exercise performance does not support the dramatic claims of muscle building and power development by manufacturers. Androstenedione has been popularized by high-profile sports stars, but initial studies cast doubt about its performance-enhancing potential".

Implication. Creatine and prohormones are not performance enhancing in all athletes. It is possible that a few individuals will be "reactors", that is, they will demonstrate changes and reactions to these classes of substances.

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