Dumestre-Toulet, V., Cirimele, V., Ludes, B., Gromb, S., & Kintz, P. (2002). Hair analysis of seven bodybuilders for anabolic steroids, ephedrine, and clenbuterol. Journal of Forensic Science, 47, 211-214.

"Several bodybuilders, all winners of international competitions, were arrested for trafficking of a number of doping agents including anabolic steroids, ephedrine, beta-adrenergics, human chorionic gonadotropin, antidepressants, and diuretics. In accordance with the recent French law against doping, the judge asked to test seven bodybuilders to identify doping practices. Hair and urine specimens were collected for analysis. After decontamination, a 100 mg hair strand was pulverized in a ball mill, hydrolyzed, extracted, and derivatized to be tested by GC/MS for anabolic steroids, beta-adrenergic compounds, ephedrine, and other doping agents. Urine was analyzed for anabolic steroids and metabolites, beta-adrenergic compounds, ephedrine, and human chorionic gonadotropin, in addition to a broad spectrum screening with GC/MS. The following compounds were detected in urine: ephedrine (29 and 36 ng/mL, n = 2), clenbuterol (0.2 to 0.3 ng/mL, n = 3), norandrosterone (4.7 to 100.7 ng/mL, n = 7), norethiocholanolone (0.9 to 161.8 ng/mL, n = 6), stanozolol (1 to 25.8 ng/mL, n = 4), methenolone (2.5 to 29.7 ng/mL, n = 4), testosterone (3 to 59.6 ng/mL, n = 7), epitestosterone (1 to 20.4 ng/mL, n = 7) and ratio testosterone/epitestosterone >6 for four subjects (18.5 to 59.6). The following drugs were detected in hair: ephedrine (0.67 and 10.70 ng/mg, n = 2), salbutamol (15 to 31 pg/mg, n = 3), clenbuterol (15 to 122 pg/mg, n = 6), nandrolone (1 to 7.5 pg/mg, n = 3), stanozolol (2 to 84 pg/mg, n = 4), methenolone (17 and 34 ng/ml, n = 2), testosterone enanthate (0.6 to 18.8 ng/mg, n = 5), and testosterone cypionate (3.3 to 4.8 ng/mg, n = 2). These results document the doping practice and demonstrate repetitive exposure to anabolic compounds and confirm the value of hair analysis as a complement to urinalysis in the control of doping practice".

Implication. Hair analysis could be a way of determining whether there was a history of drug taking. If none is shown, then the positive test was either a false test or not a deliberate attempt to use drugs.

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