Stone, M. H., Sanborn, K., Smith, L. L. O'Bryant, H. S., Hoke, T., Utter, A. C., Johnson, R. L., Boros, R., Hruby, J., Pierce, K. C., Stone, M. E., & Garner, B. (1999). Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American Football Players. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 9, 146-165.

Four groups of freshman football players in normal training and competitions underwent a 5-week period of supplement treatments: creatine monohydrate (N = 9), calcium pyruvate (N = 11), combined creatine and pyruvate (N = 11), and a placebo control (N = 11). Evaluations were performed before and after the 5-week period.

The two creatine groups showed significantly greater increases in body mass and lean body mass, 1 RM bench press and squats, and static vertical jump power output. Peak rate of force development was significantly greater in the combined group.

Implication. Creatine supplementation, whether with or without pyruvate, was associated with significant body mass and power output gains over pyruvate alone or placebo supplements in freshman football players in training.

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