Psychological skills are better established in elite competitors than in developmental swimmers. They have higher confidence levels and well-developed anxiety control capabilities. Developmental swimmers are not as sure of their capabilities, are more tense about swimming, and often become anxious at competitions.
Implication. Mental skills development is an area of coaching that is starting to be fostered. It means that coaches will have to consider yet another area of athlete development to produce top-level performers. The procedures for doing this were discussed in Swimming Science Bulletin (Number 2).
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