A variety of biomechanical factors and passive drag at various speeds were compared prior to and after shaving.
Shaving was beneficial. The energy costs for different speeds were lowered and performance times improved. Propelling efficiency improved from 16% to 22%. Passive drag was decreased by almost 50% meaning that less power had to be exerted in the pulling pattern.
Shaving did not improve "feel" for the water since no changes in pull patterns or forces were observed.
Implication. Shaving is effective for increasing the ability of a swimmer to slip through the water with less resistance.
Return to Table of Contents for ICAR 1989-90 Report.