Becque, M. D., Lochmann, J. D., & Melrose, D. R. (2000). Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 654-658.

Six weeks of creatine supplementation were evaluated for effects on arm strength factors and body composition after a periodized program of arm flexor training. Male recreational weight-trainers (N = 23) were divided into creatine supplementation (N = 10) and placebo (N = 13) groups. Group averages were matched on 1 RM arm flexor strength. Creatine doses were 5g four times per day for the first five days, then 2 g per day for the remaining period.

Both groups increased significantly in 1 RM strength, but at posttest, the creatine group was significantly greater than placebo. Fat-free mass, general body mass, and upper arm muscle mass increased significantly for the creatine group but not for the placebo group.

It was interesting to note that in the creatine group, the standard deviation of the post-treatment scores was double that of the placebo group. This increase in variation indicates that some Ss were responders, that is they reacted to creatine, while others did not react. This gives rise to the notion of only part of the population being likely to benefit from using creatine as a supplement.

Implication. Creatine supplementation produced greater muscle mass, strength gains, and fat-free mass in the upper arms than in a placebo group.

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