Simmons, S. E., Tanner, D. A., & Stager, J. M. (2000). Different determinants of sprint swim performance in male and female competitive swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), Supplement abstract 1692.

The relationship between muscular power and swimming velocity in both genders was evaluated. Competitive swimmers (M = 139; F = 122) were measured for age, height, weight, body mass index, medicine ball chest pass, vertical jump, peak force and mean force from a 30-second tethered swim test, a 15-yard timed swim, and best competitive time for 50-m freestyle.

All variables were significantly different except for age and body mass index. Principal components analysis revealed the following.

When factors are indicated it is generally implied that the factors are significantly different rather than being associated. For example, female dryland power (how "strong" is the swimmer) is not related to swimming power. However, in males the two are related. Consequently, dryland work might be beneficial for males but is unlikely to be related to sprint swimming in females.

Implication. The determinants of sprint swimming performance are gender-specific. It is suggested that technique and experience have a larger impact on performance in females than in males.

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