EXPECTATIONS FOR, AND APPRAISALS OF, ATHLETIC ABILITY AFFECT THE TYPE OF FEEDBACK EMITTED BY A COACH
Ciapponi, T. M., Golden, A. J., Jr., Martin, A. D., & Solomon, G. B (1998). Coach expectations and differential feedback: Perceptual flexibility revisited. Journal of Sport Behavior, 21, 298-310.
The purpose of this study was to examine if coaches' perceptions of athletes' abilities and improvement potential were flexible or stable, and whether the coaches' expectations predicated feedback. Coach feedback was classified by direct observation (Arizona State University Observation Instrument). Coaches ranked players on ability and improvement. Four high school basketball teams (N = 49) and their coaches served as Ss.
Over time, coaches maintained flexible perceptions of athletes' improvements but expectations about ability remained stable. Early in the season, athletes expected to be low in improvement potential were issued more management feedback, while expected high improvers received more instructional feedback. However, late in the season, expected high improvers received both higher levels of management and instructional feedback than expected low improvers.
Implication. Expectations for performance and assessments of ability affect the type of feedback emitted by basketball coaches. Athletes appraised as being superior and capable of high improvement received more feedback than lesser standard players.
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