A COACH'S REACTIONS TO ATHLETE'S PERFORMANCES AFFECTS HOW THEY ARE PERCEIVED BY CHILDREN
Amorose, A. J., & Weiss, M. R. (1998). Coaching feedback as a source of information about perceptions of ability: A developmental examination. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20, 395-420.
Boys and girls (N = 60), comprising age-groups of 6-8 years and 12-14 years, viewed video tapes of youth athletes attempting to hit a baseball or softball. Trials were followed by a coach who provided evaluative, informational, or neutral feedback. Ss rated each observed athlete's ability, effort, and future expectancy of success.
Following successful attempts, both age groups rated praise higher than neutral and informational feedback as a source of ability information. When informational feedback followed unsuccessful attempts, athletes were rated highest, followed by neutral feedback and criticism.
Based on open-ended questionnaire responses the following were found.
Implication. Children's perceptions of the performance qualities of other athletes are influenced as much by a coach's reaction as their own opinions in younger individuals, but in older age-group young adolescents, personal decisions are more influential than a coach's reactions.
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