Volume 3(2): October, 1997
THE YOUNG ATHLETE
This second issue of Volume 3 of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned with maturing athletes, that is, children and adolescents. It comprises articles and topics of particular interest to the editor and in no way covers the breadth of knowledge or scientific inquiry that involves young people and exercise.
A implied plea is made for coaches to cease applying adult-relevant coaching practices to this population of athletes. It is obvious that the ways the body energizes activity and performs skilled movements in young people is different to those, which occur in adults. This issue does not touch on the psychological factors involved in this group of individuals even though they are distinctly different to those of adults.
In this journal a case has been made to coach mature female athletes appropriately and differently to males. This particular issue may seem to promote a paradox to that principle. For practical purposes, pre-pubescent athletes can be trained without considering gender differences. While there are gender differences in children, they are relatively minor and small when compared to those existing in mature individuals. Adolescence is a time when gender differences appear. When they emerge depends largely upon the stage of maturation of individuals. Since females mature earlier than males, they warrant special attention to their unique characteristics and factors and the provision of gender-specific sport programs earlier than males. Developmental differences in adolescence make it particularly difficult to categorize specific coaching principles that can be applied in a manner that is similar in conceptual definition to that which is possible for children and adults.
There is a science of the child and the adolescent in exercise. It behooves all coaches to become familiar with the content and principles of those sciences so that maturing individuals can be provided with healthy and sound experiences in their sporting endeavors.
This issue is divided into four topics: children, adolescents, growth, and application criteria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE GROWTH OF PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN MALE AND FEMALE CHILDREN Borms, J. (1986). The child and exercise: an overview. Journal of Sports Sciences, 4, 3-20.
ENERGY CAPACITIES ONLY WEAKLY RELATED IN CHILDREN AND
ADOLESCENTS Williams, C. A., Armstrong, N., Kirby, B., & Welsman, J. (1995). Is there a relationship between children and adolescents' anaerobic and aerobic performance? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 639.
PRE-PUBERTAL CHILDREN HAVE ONE ENERGY SYSTEM? Prasad, N., Coutts, K. D., Jesperson, D., Wolski, L., Cooper, T., Sheel, W., Lama, I., & McKenzie, D. C. (1995). Relationship between aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities in pre-pubertal children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 640.
TESTING PHYSICAL FITNESS IN CHILDREN Niesen-Vertommen, S., Coutts, K. D., Prasad, N., Jespersen, D., Cooper, T., Woloski, L., Sheel, W., Lama, I., & McKenzie, D. C. (1995). Field versus laboratory tests as indicators of fitness in pre-pubertal children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 645.
HOW MUCH WEIGHT-TRAINING FOR CHILDREN? Stahle, S. D., Roberts, S. O., Davis, B., & Rybicki, L. A. (1995). Effect of a 2 versus 3 times per week weight training program in boys aged 7 to 16. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 648.
STRENGTH TRAINING RESPONSE OF CHILDREN Faigenbaum, A., Westcott, W., Micheli, L., Outerbridge, R., Long, C., LaRosa-Loud, R., & Zaichkowsky, L. (1995). The effects of strength training and detraining on children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 656.
STRENGTH TRAINING EFFECTS DIFFERENT FOR PREPUBESCENT
MALES AND FEMALES Isaacs, L. D., & Pohlman, R. L. (1995). Specificity of strength training modes in prepubescent females. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 1016.
AEROBIC TRAINING IS LIMITED IN CHILDREN Rowland, T., & Boyajian, A. (1994). Aerobic response to endurance training in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26(5), Supplement abstract 468.
CHILDREN HAVE ONLY GENERAL METABOLIC RESPONSES Bar-Or, O. (1983). Pediatric sports medicine for the practitioner (comprehensive manual in pediatrics). New York: Springer-Verlag .
TRAINING EFFECTS IN YOUNG BOYS (11-13 YR) Mero, A., Jaakkola, L., & Komi, P. V. (1991). Relationships between muscle fibre characteristics and physical performance capacity in trained athletic boys. Journal of Sports Sciences, 9, 161-171.
EARLY LEARNING/TRAINING IS NOT NECESSARILY THE BEST Scott, J. P. (1962). Critical periods in behavioral development. Science, 138, 949-958.
AGE IN AGE-GROUP COMPETITIONS Baxter-Jones, A. D. (1995). Growth and development of young athletes. Sports Medicine, 20, 59-64.
CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS Turley, K. R., & Wilmore, J. H. (1996). Cardiovascular responses to treadmill and cycle ergometer exercise in children and adults. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 70.
SPRINT AND ENDURANCE TRAINING IN CHILDREN Dykstra, G. L., Demetriou, D. G., Copay, A. G., & Boileau, R. A. (1996). Effect of six week sprint and endurance training programs on prepubescent children. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 244.
WORK CAPACITIES IN CHILDREN Rowland, T. W., & Cunningham, L. N. (1996). Influence of aerobic and anaerobic fitness on ventilatory threshold in children. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 873.
STRENGTH TRAINING IN CHILDREN Falk, B., & Tenenbaum, G. (1996). The effectiveness of resistance training in children: A meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 22, 176-186.
AGE-GROUP SKILL DEVELOPMENT Numminen, P., & Saakslahti, A. (1996, October). Gender differences - Are they dominant already in the early years? AIESEP Newsletter, 53, 4.
TIME TO START LEARNING TO SWIM Blanksby, B. A., Parker, H. E., Bradley, S., & Ong, S. (1995). Children's readiness for learning front crawl swimming. The Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 27(2), 34-37.
PHYSICAL CAPACITY DIFFERENCES IN CHILDREN OF EACH GENDER Blanksby, B. A., Bloomfield, J., Elliott, B. C., Ackland, T. R., & Morton, A. R. (1986). The anatomical and physiological characteristics of pre-adolescent males and females. Australian Pediatric Journal, 22, 177-180.
CAPACITY DIFFERENCES IN CHILDREN PARTICIPATING IN DIFFERENT
ACTIVITIES Bloomfield, J., Blanksby, B. A., Ackland, T. R., & Elliott, B. C. (1985). The anatomical and physiological characteristics of pre-adolescent swimmers, tennis players and non-competitors. The Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 17, 19-23.
SUBMAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER OUTPUT IN ADOLESCENT BOYS Geithner, C. A., Malina, R. M., & Woynarowska, B. (1995). Longitudinal analysis of the adolescent spurt in submaximal power output (PWC170). Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(5), Supplement abstract 638.
STRENGTH AND ANAEROBIC RESPONSES IN YOUNG FEMALE RUNNERS Thorland, W. G., Johnson, G. O., Cisar, C. J., Housh, T. J., & Tharp, G. D. (1987). Strength and anaerobic responses of elite young female sprint and distance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19, 56-61.
TRAINING EFFECTS ARE GENERAL IN YOUNG MALES Overend, T., Paterson, D., Cunningham, D., & Taylor, A. (October, 1985). Interval and continuous training: A comparison of training effects. A paper given at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Sports Sciences, Laval University, Quebec.
AEROBIC FITNESS DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENTS Janz, K. F., & Mahoney, L. T. (1996). Three year follow-up of changes in aerobic fitness during puberty: The Muscatine Study. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 63.
SPECIFICITY OF ADAPTATION IN ADOLESCENTS Al-Hazzaa, H. M., Al-Refaee, S. A., Sulaiman, M. A., Al-Herbish, A. S., & Chukwuemeka, A. C. (1996). Maximal cardiorespiratory responses of adolescent athletes to treadmill running and arm ergometry: Swimmers vs soccer players. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 872.
RESPONSES OF JUNIOR TRIATHLETES Gibbons, T. P., Mulligan, S. E., Wilber, R. L., & Kearney, J. T. (1996). Physiological responses in elite junior triathletes during field testing. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28(5), Supplement abstract 756.
PREDICTING ADULT PERFORMANCE FROM JUNIOR CHARACTERISTICS de Koning, J. J., Bakker, F. C., de Groot, G., & van Ingen Schenau, G. J. (1994). Longitudinal development of young talented speed skaters: Physiological and anthropometric aspects. Journal of Applied Physiology, 77, 2311-2317.
PHYSICAL FEATURES WHICH DISCRIMINATE PERFORMANCE IN
SWIMMERS Bloomfield, J., Blanksby, B. A., & Ackland, T. R. (1990). Morphological and physiological growth of competitive swimmers and non-competitors through adolescence. The Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22, 4-12.
PHYSICAL CAPACITIES OF YOUNG TENNIS PLAYERS Elliott, B. C., Ackland, T. R., Blanksby, B. A., & Bloomfield, J. (1990). A prospective study of physiological and kinanthropometric indicators of junior tennis performance. The Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22, 87-92.
UNTRAINED ADOLESCENT BOYS DO NOT RESPOND TO CHO PRE-EXERCISE FEEDING IN AN ENDURANCE TASK Hendelman, D. L., Ornstein, K., Volpe, S., & Freedson, P. S. (1997). Pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding in adolescent boys: Effect on exercise responses and performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 724.
EXERCISE AND GROWTH Cooper, D. M. (1994). Evidence for and mechanisms of exercise modulation of growth--an overview. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 26(6), 733-740.
HORMONES AND EXERCISE-INDUCED GROWTH Borer, K. T. (1994). Neurohumoral mediation of exercise-induced growth. Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 26(6), 741-754.
GROWTH, PUBERTY AND EXERCISE Rogol, A. D. (1994). Growth at puberty: interaction of androgens and growth hormone. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26(6), 767-770.
VO2max AND GROWTH Orban, W. A., & Kozak, J. F. (1997). Reconsidering VO2max and age: Integrated quantification of exertion variables. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(5), Supplement abstract 10.
BASIC ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING CONDITIONING EXERCISE PROGRAMS FOR AGE-GROUP ATHLETES Extracted from the article A SUGGESTED PROGRAM OF FOUNDATIONAL CONDITIONING EXERCISES FOR AGE-GROUP SWIMMERS authored by Brent S. Rushall and John Marsden and published as an issue of the Swimming Science Bulletin in the Swimming Science Journal (1997).
BASIC ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING SKILLS CURRICULA FOR AGE-GROUP ATHLETES Extracted from the article A CURRICULUM FOR THREE LEVELS OF AGE-GROUP SWIMMING: SECTION II -- A CURRICULUM FOR LEVELS OF AGE-GROUP SWIMMING authored by Brent S. Rushall and published as an issue of the Swimming Science Bulletin in the Swimming Science Journal (1997).
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