Umstot, D. D., Bell, C. H., & Mitchell, T. R. (1976). Effects of job enrichment and task goals on satisfaction and productivity: Implications for job design. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 379-394.

This study assessed the dynamics of job satisfaction and productivity.

Making a sporting experience "interesting" and enjoyable will make participation satisfying but will not increase the level of training productivity and achievement. It only affects motivation to participate and removes one possible reason for complaint. Performance changes will only come from goal-setting.

Implication. While athletes need to be kept "happy" with their participatory experience, goal-setting is one major avenue for stimulating performance improvements.

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