Lawler, E. E., & Hackman, J. R. (1969). Impact of employee participation in the development of pay incentive plans: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53, 457-471.

[Additional References

When individuals participate in a group goal-setting procedure, the level of performance and commitment to achieve the goals increases. Participation involves contributing to the deliberations, not having someone, such as a coach, impose goals on the group.

Implication. A coach should allow a group of athletes to form the group's goals. It most probably will be necessary to teach inexperienced groups how to organize and come to such decisions but this eventually will be more effective than the imposition of coach-determined goals on the group.

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