Heaps, R. A. (1978). Relating physical and psychological fitness: A psychological point of view. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 18, 399-408.

It was concluded: ". . . although there is a definite psychological benefit following consistent exercise and physical change, this benefit results not from the physical improvement, per se, but from the emotional or psychological perception of the physical and personal value of continued exertion." (p. 408).

Implication. What individuals get out of exercise is what they think they get out of it, not the actual fitness improvement.

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