Hortobagyi, T., Katch, F. I., & Lachance, P. F. (1991). Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 31, 20-30.

High resistance (HR), low resistance (LR), and control groups of college males were formed. Following the workouts, subjects ran two miles.

There were no differences between the two active groups in body compositions or fitness tests. Overall strength changes were 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study conducted without concomitant running. Strength and endurance improvements were independent of HR or LR training.

Implications. Gains in strength are somewhat compromised by simultaneous endurance training. Whether or not HR or LR training was pursued did not affect the gains in either strength or endurance. It would appear to be unproductive to mix strength and endurance training because an athlete would gain maximum benefits in neither. Because of this incompatibility, it would seem that an athlete's efforts in training would not be justly rewarded. This is another piece of evidence for the principle, "mixed training gives mixed results."

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