Bar-Or, O. (1983). Pediatric sports medicine for the practitioner (comprehensive manual in pediatrics). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

The objective information in female youth energy responses in sprint activities is quite scant. However, it appears that children who specialize in sports do not exhibit a specialized metabolic response. They appear to be "metabolic non-specialists." Children do not seem to display the wide variations in metabolic response capabilities seen among adults, nor do they appear to have high levels of response in any one metabolic system.

Implication. It may be a false premise to concentrate on developing specific energy systems in children as young as 12 years of age. Rather, what exercises they do should be energized by training responses to a variety of stimuli which, if applied to adults, would not produce specialized metabolic responses.

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